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INTRODUCTION: When we talk about oxidized canaries, we talk about canaries of the series Black/Bronze, and also Brown/Cinnamon. The oxidized melanin canaries have a maximum expression of eumelanin which forms long, wide and unbroken striations. The main features of black/bronze canaries are the black feathers with the maximum of oxidization, generally in the wings and tail. Phaeomelanin is complete absent. The striations are long, wide and unbroken. In intensive canaries are the striations slightly less wide. Beak, legs and claws are black. In brown canaries is the black eumelanin deleted. The melanin colour is very dark brown and consistently so throughout the plumage.The striations are long, wide and unbroken similar to the black. Series. Beak, legs and claws are brown. In brown canaries the lipochrome can appear al little dull.

What is Superoxidation in Canaries and …

… how will this occur best in appearance?

The melanin of super oxidized canaries appears generally darker. Therefore the effect of the factor superoxidation is only be best visible in canaries of the series black or bronze. Black birds with the superoxidation factor have significantly darker (deep black) horn parts, the best effect of this improvent factor. Already in nestlings is the factor superoxidation already visible, in fact on the much darker skin colour and the much darker coloured horn parts. Also the palate is black coloured. This why birds with the factor superoxidation are also called “Piel- Negra-Birds or Piel-Negro-Birds”. The name comes from the Spanish language and means "black skin". Occurs the factor superoxidation in brown birds, it can also be seen in nestlings on the darker skin colouring and the grayish colour of the horn parts. However, the darker colour faded with age, but it remains recognizable. The factor superoxidation was discovered in 1971 in Italy. To the present day experts failed to clarify how the factor was arose. Probably the factor superoxidation arose with breed crossed of the Hooded Siskin (Carduelis magellanica), a small passerine bird in the finch family, native to South America.
Important Notes:  The factor superoxidation is autosomal dominant inherited. Probably the presence of the factor superoxidation takes a negative influence on the thyroid hormones. Specifically the thyroid hormone  Thyroxine is critical to the regulation of metabolism, sexually development and growth throughout the whole animal kingdom. In birds the hormones have a significant influence on the trigger and the process of the moult. As with the known three autosomal dominant factors in canaries (factor intensive, factor crest, factor dominant white ),  should also this mating of DOMINANT x DOMINANT be avoided, or better written: The mating of superoxidant canaries x superoxidant canaries brings no positive results. It must be strictly avoided for reasons of animal welfare. In some countries this form of mating is prohibited for animal welfare reasons (i.e. Germany). NOTE: Double-factor superoxidized birds unfortunately have the property that the young birds  hardly grow and after the fledge unfortunately constantly moult. Moreover, they are not fertile. Therefore, they cannot to be used as breeding birds. 
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