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 OVERVIEW OF THE COLOUR MUTATIONS

             AND FACTORS IN CANARIES

AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT FACTORS - Crest Factor - Factor Reduction of Carotenoids - Factor Intensity - Factor Superoxidation  - Factor Piebald - Factor Jaspe (co dominant)
SEX-LINKED (X-LINKED) FACTORS - Factor Sexing (sex-linked recessive)  - Mosaic Factor (sex-linked recessive) with an indermediate character - Black Factor (generelly sex-linked recessive, but dominant to the Density of Melanin and   the Factor “Reduction of Melanin”). - Density Melanin and Reduction Melanin (generelly sex-linked recessive)        1. Factor Reduction in the brown/cinnamon         2. Factor Dilution from black to agate        3. Factor Dilution from brown/cinnamon to isabel - Factor Satinette (sex-linked  recessive) - Factor Pastel (exclusively in Melanin): include the Factor Greywing (sex-linked recessive) - Factor Ivory (sex-linked recessive)
MELANIN CANARIES - CLASSICAL COLOURS   Black/Bronze   Agate   Brown/Cinnamon   Isabel - NON-CLASSICAL COLOURS   Satinette   Phaeo   Opal   Topaz   Eumo   Onyx   Cobalt   Mogno    Jaspe   Melanin Pastel include   Grey Wing   Factor Mosaic in Melanin   Nero Perla/Black Pearl

OVERVIEW OF EXISTING COLOUR FACTORS IN CANARIES

AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE FACTORS - Factor Formation for Carotenoids   (i.e. White Recessive Canary) - Factor Ino (i. e. Albino, Rubino Lutino) - Factor Colouration Yellow - Factor Colouration Red - Factor Optical Colouring - Factor Optical Blue & Factor Azul  - Factor Eumo - Factor Cobalt - Factor Mogno - Factor Phaeo  - Factor Opal  - Factor Onyx - Factor Topaz  - Nero Perla/Black Pearl - Red Beak Canary (Urucum Canary) - Yellow Beak Canary (Bec Jaune Canary)
Targeted canary breeding requires certain knowledge in genetics. We got the first useable knowledge about hereditary factors from Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884). He is considered the person who began genetics and also created the terms still used today. Up to this time, knowledge about genetics was not known. That's one of the reasons why already appeared very early mutations, but then disappeared again. I. e. the mutation agate was already mentioned around 1700. Then the factor Agate was not mentioned again, until 1910 in the Netherlands this mutation was discovered again. The birth of coloured canaries was around the turn of the 20th century and can be put down to one of the greatest pioneers in the canary breeding, Dr. Hans Dunker (1881 -1961) from Germany, a persistent bird enthusiast, who tried to be the first to explain “Piebald” canaries by factors. He also discovered that he could mate a South American carduelid Red Siskin male (Carduelis cucullata) with a yellow canary female to produced a Red Canary.The occasion was the fact that around 1870 an English canary breeder had caused a scandal by feeding Norwich canaries with chilli to turn them orange. Thanks to his perseverance the canary breeding could evolve enormously. In 1962 the textbook “Farbenkanarien” (Coloured Canaries) was published by the German Mr. Julius Henninger. All previously known hereditary factors for canaries were described. Since then however, further mutations have occurred. Thanks to all the breeders who since then have developed the canary breeding with a lot of endurance and have written down and taught all the new genetic characteristics.
Gregor Johann Mendel    Julius Henninger
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Fundamentals of Color Genetics in Canaries: Reproduction and Control
Colored, Type & Song Canaries
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