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In the breeding of melanin canaries is the handling of additional factors inevitable and also important for a better appearance of the bird. Additional factors change not only inheritance rules, but also the appearance of the eumelanin and the paeomelanin. The “Optical Blue Factor” and the “Azul Factor” are the most important factors in the last decades, that had led to a wave of colour changes in colour canaries. These two factors have almost the same appearance, but differ by interesting details. Both factors are autosomal recessive hereditary. Note: The optical blue factor is not to be confused with the term: “Blue Canary - a white-grounded melanin canary”
Further special Characteristics  and Differences of the Optical Blue Factor  & the Azul Factor
- The presence of the optical blue factor ist first seen   after the first juvenile moult. The azul factor already   occurs in the nest. So is the phaeomelanin, visible in the   classic birds from the black series before the first moult as   a brown phaeomelanin, in azul nestlings direct   transformed from brown to grey. In optical blue factor   canaries the effect is first seen after the moult.   Note: There are also exceptions in azul birds. In some   birds brown phaeomelanin remains in the black series.   This is probably due to the amount of phaeomelanin,   present in the bird. However after the first moult the   melanin also changes from brown to grey. - The optical effect differs from the optical blue factor and   the azul factor. The grey from the optical blue factor is   flashing. The grey from the azulactor is mat.  - In some cases it is even so, that if the blue factor works   very well, it is hardly possible to determine whether it is a   bird with or without azul factor. - In contrast to the azul factor, which was established by   gene transfer from a siskin, the optical blue factor is a   bird's own factor.
How both factors do work in Canaries?
- Azul Canaries have a slightly milder body colour relative   to a classic bird. - Azul canaries have a slower growth over classical birds,   but without any notable disadvantages. - When introducing the azul factor into a stock, all   offsprings are inheriting the azul factor. But only when the   double factor azul is present, we get really birds without   brown phaeomelanin. Is only the single factor azul   present, the bird is still quite brown. Despite the existing   of phaeomelanin they are usable breeding birds. - It is not correct that the azulactor reduces the presence of   phaeomelanin. Also that the azul factor would be the   same as a monomelanine canary bird. In many   monomelanin canaries is the azulactor also present. - The colour of the beak in azul canaries is not affected by   the azul factor. Referring of the horn parts are many   unknown factors and environmental influences that   determine the colour.
Further statements and reviews about Canaries with Azul Factor
- Both, the “Optical Blue Factor and the “Azul Factor” alter   the structure in the feather and produce an optical effect.   This means that the light is broken and returned. - The “Optical Blue Factor” and the “Azul Factor” cause a   repression of the brown (phaeo) melanins. Therefore,   these factors are also referred to as a "brown   displacement factor" or a "phaeomelanin displacement”.   The clearest effect is to be found in classical and non-   classical canaries of the black series, which are then free   of brown parts as required by the standard. Therefore, the   melanin striations are shown more clearly.
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W. Hagelberg's zoologischer Hand-Atlas              
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