Malarias Infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites that attack the red blood cells. Malignant Spread from the location of origin to other areas; that is, tumors that are invasive and that spread throughout the body. Mantle Frilled canaries: formed by the feathers of the back which are divided by a long, straight, central parting and curling over the bird’s shoulders lik a cape. Marek's disease  An important infectious disease of poultry, that is caused by infection with a herpesvirus. Marine birds  Birds of the open ocean, typically pelagic, and often colonial nesters, such as alcids, shearwaters, storm petrels, gannets, boobies, and frigatebirds. Marked A bird which may have dark feathering on (touching) the eyes, the secondary flights or outer tail feathers Melanin The dark pigments found in the canary’s plumage, consisting of black (eumelanin) and brown (phaeomelanin). Also found in the eyes, skin and feathers. Meront An asexual stage in the development of some protozoan parasites that gives rise to merozoites. Merozoite A stage in the life cycle of some protozoan parasites. Mesogenic Refers to a form of Newcastle disease virus that is moderately virulent as measured in chickens. Metabolic rate  An expression of the rate at which oxygen is used by cells of the body. Metacercaria  The encysted resting or maturing stage of a trematode (fluke) parasite in the tissues of an intermediate host. Migratory birds All birds listed under the provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Molt, Moult  1. The normal shedding of hair, horns, feathers and external skin before replacement by new growth. 2. The moult is an anually or periodic replacement of the plumage of birds. Moribund  A visible, debilitated state resulting from disease; appearing to be suffering from disease and close to death. Motility/motile/nonmotile These terms refer to whether or not a bacterial organism moves on a particular culture medium; such movement reflects the presence of flagellae. Thus, the absence or presence of motility is a useful characteristic for identifying bacteria. Mucosa  A mucous membrane. Mucous membrane The layer of tissue that lines a cavity or the intestinal tract and that secretes a mixture of salts, sloughed cells, white blood cells, and proteins. Mucosal surface  a layer of cells lining the inside of the intestinal tract or other body part that secretes mucus. Mutation A mutation is a naturally occuring difference from the norm. Myocarditis Inflammation of heart muscle. Myocardium The middle and thickest layer of the heart wall; composed of cardiac muscle. Mycosis Fungal infection. Mycotoxin  A poison produced by various species of molds (fungi).
Nares The external openings on the top of the bill of birds; the external orifices of the nose; the nostrils. Nasal gland  A specialized gland of birds and some other species that serves to concentrate salt and secrete it from the body. Nasal cavity  The forward (proximal) portion of the passages of the respiratory system, extending from the nares to the pharynx and separated from the oral cavity by the roof of the mouth. Native Indigenous origin or growth of plants or animals. Other synonyms are: domestic, homegrown, homemade, local. NDV  Newcastle disease virus. Necropsy The methodical examination of the internal organs and tissues of an animal after death to determine the cause of death or to observe and record pathological changes. Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue. Necrotic  Dead; exhibiting morphological changes indicative of cell death; in this Manual,necrotic lesions refer to areas of dead tissue. Nematocides Chemicals used to kill nematode worms. Nematodes  Unsegmented, cylindrical parasitic worms; roundworm. Neochmia Neochmia is a genus of estrildid finches found in the region of Australasia - Neochmia temporalis (Red-browed Finch) - Neochmia phaeton (Crimson Finch) - Neochmia ruficauda (Star finch) - Neochmia modesta (Plum-headed Finch) Neoplasm See tumor. Nervous system  Specialized components of vertebrates, and, to a lesser extent invertebrates, that control body actions and reactions to stimuli and the surrounding environment. Neuraminidase Neuraminidase is also calles sialidase, any of a group of enzymes that cleave sialic acid, a carbohydrate occurring on the surfaces of cells in humans and animals, plants and microorganisms. Together with various forms of hemagglutinin, neuraminidase is used to distinguish between subtypes of influenza A virusses (e.g.H5 N1) Neurotoxin  Toxins that cause damage to or destroy nerve tissue. Nictitating membrane  The so-called third eyelid, a fold of tissue connected to the medial (side closest to the midline) side of the eye, which moves across the eye to moisten and protect it. Nocturnal  Species that are active during evening (nondaylight) hours. Nodule  A small mass of tissue that is firm, discrete, and detectable by touch.. Non Capped A Lizard canary that has no cap at all, the feathers of the head being covered by the normal spangled type as found in the rest of the body. Non-Intensive In canaries showing white frosting on the tips of it’s feathers. Non-Frosted In canaries, one of the two feather types, also called intensive canary. Off-white As off-white is a white colour with a grey or yellowish tinge understood. Oocyst The encyst or encapsulated zygote in the stage of some protozoan parasites; often highly resistant to environmental conditions. Opal A mutation in the coloured canary involving dilution of the melanin pigments, pencilling being of a silvery grey colour. Opisthotonos  Abnormal spasm of the neck and back muscles resulting in a body position in which the head and heels are involuntarily thrown back and the body is arched forward. Osmoregulation  Adjustment of osmotic pressure in relation to the surrounding environment. Osteoporosis  Loss of bone structure. Over Capped A serious fault in Lizard canaries in which the cap runs down into the neck. Panzootic A disease involving animals within a wide geographic area such as a region, continent, or globally. Papilloma This disease is caused from a herpes-like virus. Symptoms are pink or grey cauliflower-like mass in the vent, mouth or throat Parasitism An association between two species in which one (the parasite) benefits from the other (the host), often by obtaining nutrients. (see also: Parasite) Parasite A parasite is an organism that lives off the life force of another organism. The food of the parasite consists of that which is administered to this organism. They also excrete in this system and can travel throughout this body. (see also: Parasitism). More than 3000 species are known. Mainly we divide the parasite in two main groups: protozoa and worms. Read more about Parasitic diseases in birds> Paratenic host A host that has been invaded by a parasite, but within which no morphological or reproductive development of the parasite takes place; a "transport" host. Paresis Partial paralysis. Parrots Parrots are tropical birds,very colourful and belong to the family “Psittaciadae”. Characteristic for a parrot is the colourful plumage, a stout hooked beak, the thick and tubular tongue. Also characteristic for parrots are the four toes, two toes pointing forward and two backward (zygodactyls) for a good climbing. Passerines. Small- to medium-sized perching birds. Pathogenic The ability to cause disease. Pathological An adjective used to describe structural or functional changes that have occurred as the result of a disease. PBFD = Psittacine beak and feather disease Read more about this disease> PCB Acronym for polychlorinated biphenyls, a group of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons used in a variety of commercial applications. These compounds have long environmental persistence and have been a source for various toxic effects in a wide variety of fauna. Pencilling The dark markings in the forms of streaks that are seen in the canary’s plumage on back and flanks. They are black in greens and brown in cinnamons and in general, should be clearly visible but not too heavy. Pericarditis Inflammation and thickening of the sac surrounding the heart. Peritoneal cavity The abdominal cavity, which contains the visceral organs. Phage  A virus that has been isolated from a prokaryote (an organism without a defined nucleus, having a single double-standard DNA molecule, a true cell wall, and other characteristics). Most phages are bacterial viruses. Pharynx  The musculomembranous passage between the mouth and the larynx and esophagus. Pigeon milk  The regurgitated liquid that an adult pigeon feeds its young. Pink Eyed A characteristic of cinnamon or brown canaries, clearly visible only when nestlings. As the bird becomes older the iris turns so dark a brown. Plainhead A bird without any crest to its head. Usually only applied in the Lancashire breed, although the Norwich is still widely referred to as the Norwich Plainhead -  a hangover from the days when it needed to be distinguished from the Crested Norwich. Plaque  A patch or a flat area, often on the surface of an organ. Plasmodium  Blood parasites transmitted by mosquitos of the family Culicidae. Plumage The feather covering of birds. Poephila  Poephila is a genus of estrildid finches from Australia - Poephila personata (Masked finch) - Poephila acuticauda cuticauda (Long-tailed finch) - Poephila cincta cincta (Black-Throated finch) - Poephila bichenovii bichenovii (Double-barred finch) Position The characteristic posture of a bird which should always be typical of it particular breed Postmortem Examination and dissection of animal carcasses performed after the death of the animal. Also changes that occur in tissues after death. Poultry Domestic avian species, such as chickens and domestic ducks, geese, and turkeys. Prefledglings Birds of the current hatch year that have not become feathered enough to fly. Prevalence The number of cases of a disease occurring at a particular time in a designated or defined area; rate. Protozoa Protoza are one-celled parasites with a recognizable nucleus, cytoplasm and cytoplasmic structures. When ingested, they germinate, reproduce and can disturb the system of the organism. Psittacines Parrots, parakeets, and other species within the family Psittacidae.
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